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Copper On Skin - Cultural Beliefs, Scientific Data and Esoteric Ideas

- By Sergio Lub, 1995

Paper first published in the Proceedings of the International Forum on New Science, of the Conference held September 13-17, 1995 in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Reprinted with permission from the International Association for New Science, 1304 S. College Ave. Fort Collins, CO 80524, USA, (970) 482-3731.

Abstract

After designing, handcrafting, and marketing copper and copper alloy bracelets worldwide since 1969, I am exploring the scientific findings that may help explain the beliefs shared by so many unrelated ancient cultures, and contemporary people, on the beneficial effects of wearing copper and brass bracelets.

Introduction

Writing a scientific paper is a new endeavor for me. I am trained as an Architect and have made my living as a jewelry designer for the last 26 years. I reduced the scale of my designs, from buildings and sculptures to wearable art, so they were easier to carry with me when I went out to see the world. My jewelry served me well as a means of trade, and as a way of introducing myself when I couldn't communicate with words.

Traveling around I followed a simple agenda: "Look for the happiest people I could find and hang around them". My search would often take me to small villages where I blended as well as I could. Through the years I started noticing common denominators. One that struck me the most was how frequently I found that my new friends wore brass and copper bracelets.

Some of the happiest people I found do not accumulate many things, and the bracelets they wear is one of their very few "non-functional" possessions. I am highlighting "non-functional" because what is for some a mere body adornment, I found can have for other wearers, far more profound meaning.

A Massai shepherd explained to me that his bracelet enhanced his strength and endurance, an important function when you only have a spear to keep hungry lions away from your cattle. A Tibetan elder felt his bracelet helped find his way back to himself from his deep meditational wanderings. A resilient Sherpa guide told me his layered bracelet stored his extra energy when he was fresh, and released it back to him when he needed it, a handy tool to have in an area where often it is vital to be able to walk that extra mile. High in the Andes, Inca descendants taught me that men should wear copper and leave gold for the Gods. Curious enough I found the Aztecs had similar beliefs in Mesoamerica and so did the Egyptians earlier yet.

Searching in museums and history books I found that Greek warriors would often fight naked to have maximum mobility, yet wearing their brass bracelets, heavy cuffs similar to the ones worn by gladiators centuries later while performing at the Roman Coliseum. They both believed their bracelets made them stronger, and that extra confidence could have been the determining factor that made more believers survive, thus spreading the belief.

Older cultures have not left us with explanations of their beliefs but if you look at their statues and human figures carved in stone, they often are wearing bracelets. Many times those bracelets are the most detailed part of the art piece.

For many years I listened to the stories with attention but processed them through my Western filters and filed them away somewhere between folk remedies and fairy tales. My attitude changed when in 1984 in a sweat lodge in the mountains near Boulder, Colorado, I was cured of Bell's Palsy by Wallace Black Elk, an elder medicine man of the Lakota tribe. During the ceremony my previously skeptic eyes saw paranormal things I still can not explain. Three doctors had told me after extensive testing that they could not help me regain control of my face muscles and all it took was for Wallace to call the Great Spirit, ask him to help me, and there I was hours later smiling again.

The dramatic "spontaneous remission" of my facial paralysis made me realize how little I knew and how arrogant I was for not paying closer attention to the beliefs I was entrusted with as I learned to make bracelets. Since then, when creating a new design, I hold those beliefs as important as the technical considerations.

For many African tribes, a bracelet marks the passage to adulthood and gives the wearer a sense of belonging and identity. The fitting of a bracelet often culminates lengthy initiation ceremonies, and those bracelets are then worn for life. In several tribes I visited, the design of a bracelet is entrusted to the Shaman since they believe that the one who is in contact with the invisible world could better select the metals and techniques that will enhance the virtues of a particular person of the tribe.

Paramahansa Yogananda [1946] wrote in his classic book Autobiography of a Yogi: "Just as a house may be fitted with a copper rod to absorb the shock of lightning, so the bodily temple can be protected in certain ways. Electrical and magnetic radiations are ceaselessly circulating in the universe; they affect man's body for good and ill. Ages ago our rishis pondered the problem of combating the adverse effects of subtle cosmic influences. The sages discovered that pure metals emit an astral light which is powerfully counteractive to negative pull of the planets..."

"The practical preventive uses of astrology have seldom been seriously studied outside of India. One little-known fact is that the proper jewels, metals and plant preparations are valueless unless the required weight is secured and unless the remedial agent is worn next to the skin".

I have not been formally trained as a Shaman and I do not have recipes I can share on why I make a particular design. Designing has been for me first guided by aesthetics and then progressively more by listening to the many voices that thought me what I know, a process I guess could be best described as intuitive.

As I grew older I realized that those beliefs that were lovingly passed along for countless generations are part of mankind's cultural heritage. I have being paying homage to those traditions by designing ever more carefully, paying attention to every little detail and reworking a prototype, sometimes for years, until I finally feel it is right.

As I witnessed many of the master craftsmen that I met fading away without passing their skills to younger apprentices in their community, I developed an urge to spread the information I was entrusted with.

Through my business activities I have been tempted more than once into becoming a world famous designer whose limited pieces would become investments for an elite group who can afford them. My entrepreneurial side was tempted, yet when it was time to change our marketing approach and raise our prices I didn't feel that was right.

Through the years our company lost more than one ambitious salesperson because I had this "weird" attitude that we were in the business of making beautiful, meaningful and affordable handcrafted jewelry instead of being in the business of making as much money as we could.

To further confound Harvard Business School experts, many of the things discussed in this paper could arguably be considered "trade secrets" since other bracelet makers could use this knowledge to more effectively compete for our business. Well, so be it! I feel this information needs to be shared and if it inspires younger jewelers to make even better bracelets, that will probably become our greatest contribution.

We are doing well in spite of these and some other non conventional business practices like buying our work back if a store can not sell it, or guaranteeing our craftsmanship even on our $15 bracelets. Our business has grown steadily and in the last 26 years I and the friends that help me, have made and sold over 2 million copper and copper alloy handcrafted bracelets.

We combine ancient techniques with modern tools to become perhaps history's largest maker of handcrafted bracelets. Through our success we consciously kept a low profile and remained a quiet tune that people somehow heard over the roar of modern advertising.

Thanks to the generosity of my many teachers I am probably today the living person in the Western world who knows the most about brass and copper bracelets. Ironically, I know intimately that I am only starting to glimpse the vast realms that are yet to be explored.

This paper is an overview of the different areas where my research has taken me. As you will see, each area of interest branches out into several others, each of which in turn may well take a lifetime to fully explore.

Humbled by the immensity of this task I realize that I should start making my research public so other people can help me. When the International Association for New Science invited me to present a paper for their annual meeting, I thought it to be the best possible forum to share my findings and to recruit new brilliant and open minds to join me in this fun task of searching for the perfect bracelet.

Supporting Data

To organize the supporting data I divided it into 3 basic properties that different cultures had attributed to copper and copper alloy bracelets. Through history, these bracelets have been believed to help man in their Physical, Mental and Esoterical realms. Following each belief I will attempt to point to scientifically accepted research that may provide a basis for further exploration.

To remind myself of the importance of keeping an open mind, I recall the Spider's Web story. In a Museum in Cuzco, Peru, I found human skulls that had been surgically altered from centuries before the Spaniards arrived. While Europeans were dying from simple infections, "primitive" Incas were surviving the removal of brain tumors. The Indians told the Spaniards how they did it. Part of the recipe was to dress the wounds with spider's webs but in the translation someone inadvertently edited the webs part out. This "improved" Inca surgical technique didn't work when first attempted and was therefore forgotten until contemporary times when researchers found that the spider's web is an excellent coagulant, and in the Peruvian jungle it grows a mold on it: Penicillin.

Physical Properties

"I have worn my copper bracelet for one year and it is the best thing for my arthritis. Thank you, well worth the money". 11-13-94 Peter Roube, 737 E. Vassar Ave., Denver, CO 80210.

"I work on a computer keyboard for a living and have carpel-tunnel syndrome? Since wearing my copper bracelet I have cut down on taking aspirin and many days I am pain free and able to do my job." 12-2-94 Alice Hall, P. O. Box 12643, Scottsdale, AZ 85267

While selling our bracelets at craft fairs and shows all over the world, I had thousands of perfect strangers coming to thank me for having made the bracelet they were wearing. The quotes above are from the Denver Holiday Food & Gift Show, the last one I personally did in Colorado. I had never seen those people before and I have not seen them since. I asked them to write their comments because I felt their testimony was typical of the ones I have been hearing for years.

I started making brass & copper bracelets when I was 16 years old. I thought they were pretty and fun to make and it never crossed my mind that they could also help people find relief from their pains and regain mobility. Years later I started receiving testimonials and started paying more attention to them.

"Renewed interest in the use of copper complexes to treat chronic diseases has given new credibility to a folk medicine as ancient as man himself" [Sorenson 1976]

The American Arthritis Foundation calls copper bracelets an "unproven remedy". I consider this expression an oxymoron. A remedy is or is not. They probably refer to the fact that the clinical trials for copper bracelets have not been conducted yet to the satisfaction of the Food and Drug Administration. One of America's foremost expert in this matter, Professor of Biology Helmar H.A. Dollwet, Ph.D., from the University of Akron, Ohio and author of The Copper Bracelet and Arthritis explained to me that there was no economic incentive for drug companies to make the large investment needed to conduct the long trials demanded by the FDA. Copper is a natural element and cannot be patented. How could a drug company make money on it? Instead, they profitably sell anti-inflammatory drugs for the relief of arthritis.

Under the law, no one in the U.S. is allowed, in the absence of clinical trials, to claim that copper bracelets are a remedy. I learned this when a representative of the FDA visited my studio in 1982 and demanded that I recall thousands of guarantee cards that go with our bracelets. On the card, I had referred to copper as "healing". The FDA asked me to remove that word. When I showed the agent thick files of research on the beneficial effects of wearing copper, I was met with glaring eyes.

The situation is different in Canada, Western Europe, and other countries. In London and Barcelona, for example, I have bought copper bracelets from pharmacist who adjusted the bracelets to my wrist and explained that when I saw a green mark on my skin I would know the remedy was working.

In 1939, the German physician Werner Hangarter, reported that Finnish copper miners were free of arthritis in spite of rheumatism being a widespread disease in Finland [Hangarter and L?bke 1952]. Dr Hangarter successfully treated patients suffering from rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, neck and back problems, as well as sciatica with copper compounds, but interest in copper became dormant after his retirement which coincided with the introduction of corticoids, initially hailed as "wonder drugs" [Dollwet 1985]

Jane Heimlich, wife of Dr. Henry Heimlich, inventor of the Heimlich Maneuver, poses the question in her book What Your Doctor Won't Tell You: "Is there any scientific validity to the belief that wearing a copper bracelet relieves arthritis pain?" She writes:

"An Australian Chemist, Dr W. Ray Walker of the University of Newcastle, decided to find answers for himself. He was aware that a copper-aspirin compound was known to have anti-inflammatory effect, and that copper chelates were used as arthritis drugs from the 1940's to the 1950's in France and Germany. He knew that the world's oldest medical text, the Egyptian Ebers papyrus, recommends pulverized copper to treat various types of inflammation. Walker also knew that when copper is in contact with the skin, it forms chelates with components of human sweat and is thus absorbed through the skin."

"So, to find out if copper bracelet users knew something that scientists ought to know, Walker embarked on a study with 300 arthritis sufferers, half of whom had previously worn copper bracelets. Copper bracelet users were asked not to wear their bracelets for one month. Other subjects who had never worn a copper bracelet were given 2 bracelets - one made of copper, the other a placebo (aluminum) - and asked to wear each bracelet for one month. Subjects did not know which bracelet was copper and which the placebo. As a check on whether subjects wore their bracelets, each copper bracelet was weighed before and after a month's use. (A bracelet decreases in weight as it is worn owing to absorption of copper.)"

"During the course of the study, previous copper bracelet users reported they were significantly worse when not wearing their copper bracelets. The majority of the other subjects said that they felt their best during the month when they wore the copper bracelet. Said Walker, a copper bracelet may not release as much copper as a copper-aspirin chelate, but think of it as a "time-release" source of copper that desensitizes the individual to irritants associated with chronic inflammation" [Heimlich 1990]

Mental Properties

In the last 25 years I have done over 500 shows where I personally adjusted bracelets to an average of 2,000 people per show. Add to this my visits to about 1,000 of our retail locations where I trained salespeople on how to correctly adjust a bracelet to wrists of the buying public. Adding it all up in my life I must have seen, touched and interacted with over 2 million people. While it may sound strange, there is a genre of "bracelet wearing" people. They are perky, alive, friendly and they care about their personal appearance. Bracelet wearers are fun people.

In slow shows I adjust bracelets to anyone who approaches my display. Sometimes I sell bracelets to characters that do not seem to be having fun with life. You know, uptight, nervous, gloomy or absent people who happen to drift into my display booth. To my surprise I often recognized those same people coming back days or years later, wearing now perhaps more than one bracelet and looking much more energized and alive. They often drag along a friend to be fitted with a bracelet and say, "These are the ones I told you about, you ought to try one!".

In busy shows I have several helpers, and it is common for us to share over dinner our experiences with the new converts and the most remarkable transformations we have seen that day.

From my observations I believe that people wearing handcrafted brass and copper bracelets are happier, more energetic and seem to enjoy life more fully than their piers who do not wear bracelets. What is the reasoning here? The bracelets are probably attracting the ones who are naturally more inclined to decorate themselves, the fun loving members of a group. But how do you explain the attitude changes with the converts? Is it possible that copper and brass bracelets somehow change the personality of their wearers, making them more easy going?

Two American professors, H. H. A. Dollwet Ph.D. from the Department of Biology, University of Akron, Ohio, and J. R. J. Sorenson Ph.D. from the College of Pharmacy University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock, Arkansas found many historical uses of copper as antiseptic and anti-inflammatory agent, and also as a promoter of general wellbeing [Dollwet 1985]. For example in medieval Germany the famous physician Paracelsus prescribed copper for the treatment of "dyskrasische Krankheiten" ("bad mixture of bodily humors") [Burq 1853].

In the mid-1800's, physician Rademacher [1848] gave copper oxide in a "good glass of Rhine wine" to his patients, and reported to have cured neuralgias of the head, apoplexy, paralysis, angina and scarlatina, pleurisy (threatening lung paralysis), dropsy, hematuria, acute and chronic rheumatism and asthma, using copper. He claimed that copper not only could act as a curative drug but could render one's health more robust and increase both life span and virility. He considered copper a Universalheilmittel (universal healing agent) and he himself ingested about 10 grains of copper every morning [Schulz 1907].

It is interesting to notice that Rodemacher also reported that broken bones healed faster when the patient took copper salts during convalescence and only recently was it scientifically proven that copper is intimately involved in the formation of healthy bones [Keen et al. 1982]

The French physician Victor Burq used copper and brass bracelets to treat his patients. During the 1849 cholera epidemic he reported to successfully control cramps by applying copper rings to legs and arms of the patients. The same year he reported to have cured a paralyzed hysteric by placing rings of brass around her arms, legs, and trunk. Other patients successfully cured with the external application of brass and copper were those suffering from epilepsy, anemia, neuralgia, hysteria, hypochondria, neurosis of hysteric nature and various others mental diseases.

Burq's success with copper led him to make this prophetic statement: "As it is so often within our destinies to walk for a long while side by side with the truth, without even suspecting its presence, particularly when deity has taken a few small precautions to shroud in veils its bareness, these active agents have always gone under various disguises, sometimes borrowed from witchcraft..." [Burq 1853].

The Swiss physician K?chlin determined in 1818 that the active ingredient of an old popular secret potion imported from the Orient was copper in the form of ammonium salt [K?chlin 1837], and began to sell it with great acclaim in Switzerland, Germany and Holland where it was found to treat melancholy, hypochondria and hysteria among other ailments.

According to K?chlin copper was also believed to increase male potency. Interestingly a relationship between copper deficiency and sterility in cows was more recently reported [Hignett 1952].

Esoteric Properties
I am not sure how to name the many beliefs that are not directly related to our biological bodies. Perhaps we should name them Ethereal, or just Non-Physical Properties.

This is the area where I feel modern Science knows the least. Hopefully, as we advance in our knowledge we will find new ways to organize this information, for now I will attempt to sort the beliefs I run into from the least to the most "far out" from my own Western upbringing perspective.

Bio-Battery

The belief I found in Nepal that bracelets get charged when we are fresh and rested and then feed this stored energy back to the wearer when needed may have a scientific basis. Different metals in an acidic solution generate a differential of electrical potential between them as electrons travel from one to the other. This is the principle of a battery and may be at work in some of the layered bracelets when human sweat fills the spaces between the metals. A small current can have an unexpected influence, especially since the wrist is a particularly sensitive area.

Acupressure Points

The feeling of confidence and strength credited to wearing cuff bracelets may be related to their shape and where the ends of the bracelets rest while on the wrist.

In traditional Chinese medicine the "Chi" or life energy flows through specific paths called meridians. These flow lines have no relation to any of our systems studied in our much younger Western Medicine. The Chi Meridians are still being ignored by our Medicinal Schools in spite of the evidence that Acupuncture and Acupressure are very effective to treat certain illnesses, and both of these sciences are based on these meridians.

Some of the acupressure teachings have travelled far from China. In India I was told that traditionally women apply pressure to the points in the wrist were normally the ends of a cuff bracelet will rest to gather extra strength during child labor. Tall ship sailors used pressure points in the wrist to prevent getting sea sick. And I noticed that several of my neighbors in California press a point in the palm of their hand to relief themselves from headaches.

Metallic Crystal Resonance

On 3 occasions I witnessed psychic or sensitive people "feeling" a brass & copper bracelet and accurately describing characteristics of the person who had been wearing it. In Brazil I witnessed an Umbanda (white magic) ceremony where they used a copper bracelet that had been worn by an ill person as the only tool to "diagnose" the patient. A medium told me not to wear a used bracelet of unknown origin unless I discharged it first by submersing it overnight in salt water.

Copper and its metallic alloys are organized in crystalline formations that may store the wearer's signature. To my knowledge there has been no scientific research done yet to explore this phenomenon. This may explain why objects of strong sentimental value often are jewelry or metallic objects that were in close contact with a loved one.

Annealed or "Relaxed" Metals

Many bracelet wearers reject machine made bracelets because they "do not feel right". I understand at least part of this since I can usually identify with my eyes closed a machine made bracelet from a similar handmade one. A stamping machine applies tons of pressure on a sheet of malleable metal to quickly stamp a desired pattern and shape. The whole operation may take less than a second, but intimately deforms the microscopic crystal lattice of the metal, making it rigid and brittle (more "rock like"). A craftsperson making the same pattern by hand from an identical sheet of metal, will gradually work the metal to its final shape, taking several breaks to heat the metal with a torch so the vibrating molecules can realign themselves and relieve the stress produced by the changes made. - This heating process is called "annealing". Some of our complicated designs are annealed 5 or 6 times while we patiently "persuade" the metal to change into our desired form. The final result may look identical but it feels different. The machine made bracelet reflects the stress it was put under, being unyielding and sharp, while the handcrafted one is malleable, easily adjustable, and it feels relaxed and natural.

Most metals in their natural pure form are malleable, meaning that their external shape can be changed without breaking, a rare property in the Mineral Kingdom where most rocks are rigid and fragile. While being distorted, Copper, Silver, Gold and their alloys, become more rigid and "rock like" until they fracture.

"Iron is from Mars, Copper is from Venus"

This play on words exemplifies a recurrent reference I found in many disparate sources such as Ancient Ayurvedic texts from India, obscure alchemy books from Medieval Europe and in the teachings of the multifaceted and controversial German scientist Rudolf Steiner (who got my attention when I learned he was Number 1 on Hitler's enemies list).

Since recorded history man has associated Mars & Iron with cold weapons, physical might, and the male way of projecting power and domination by force. While at the same time Venus & Copper are associated with the female characteristics of nurturing and caring, being malleable, warm, and attracting with beauty.

While weapons were made of iron and its steel alloys, most cooking utensils and house tools were made of copper and its bronze and brass alloys.

Greek Mythology also associates Mars with wars, Iron, and male energy, while Venus is the female goddess. It is my understanding that the principal temple to Venus was on the island of Crete, not far from the most important copper mines of antiquity.

The possible explanation here is that metals resonate at a certain frequency that amplifies the vibrations produced by different astral bodies as they rotate in space. These vibrations in turn affect our environment and our bodies changing our perceptions, feelings and mental attitudes. As strange as it may sound, it seems warranted that such an amazing synchronicity of beliefs shared by such disparate cultures be given further investigation and scientific inquiry.

Metal Coils as Receptors

About half of the bracelet designs we make have coils made of at least 2 different metals. In one of our most complicated designs we combined seven metals in one single coil. I never gave much thought to coiling metal, it has been done since the Bronze Age and it feels right to continue doing it. To my pleasant surprise however, I recently learned that there may be more than aesthetic appeal in the helical form.

Brian O'Leary writes in his book Exploring Inner and Outer Space: "British researchers David Ash and Peter Hewitt propose that a 'super-energy' field creates small electrical impulses in living cells because DNA molecules may resonate with various frequencies directed toward them in the field: 'Cells,' they say, 'could be acting as radio stations in the higher realms of the universe. These tough?-form signals, setting the fields of life into vibration and resonating with DNA molecules, could be transferred into genetic codes. In this way, universal intelligence could direct the process of biological evolution, via genetic variation, towards increased order and diversity' [Ash & Hewitt 1988]."

"...Ash & Hewitt also point out that our early radios used a helical shape as the resonating crystals. DNA also forms a double helix." [O'Leary 1993]

Conclusion

The more I learn about the electromagnetic spectrum, the more it fascinates me. Our reality of sounds, colors, flavors, smells and textures is produced by the pitifully small frequency range our senses can perceive. There are an infinite number of other stations transmitting but nature has not giving us the receptors to receive them, or evolution has not demanded from us in the past to develop them.

We have done an incredible job expanding our perceptual range in the last few years with radios, TV, radar, microwave, Geiger counters, telescopes, microscopes and related machines. As we flick through these fascinating new channels of nature the scope of our known world and its complexity rises exponentially. We are having glimpses that something as immaterial and subtle as our thoughts is affecting the behavior of subatomic particles, the building blocks of all our "real stuff".

A curious person in the late 20th Century is a very busy person. New worlds are opening up to us so fast that it is becoming impossible to keep track. Membership subscriptions, clipping services, computers, and faster communications have helped us to more or less to cope until now, but the beat is accelerating.

A curious person in the 21st Century will have a big choice to make. To specialize ever more in one of the countless new cutting edge areas of expanding knowledge - to find the process by which copper-silicylate complexes seek and neutralize damaging hydroxyl radicals for example - or to try to fly above the expanding craze, wearing ever wider lenses to "feel" rather than trying to comprehend the ever more complicated landscape.

For the person who develops trust in their new abilities to feel rather than analyze, decisions should come much easier, and navigating these brave new waters may still be a manageable task.

In this context, I could foresee 2 curious men shopping for a copper and brass bracelet 10 years from now. One is scanning the myriad of different designs offered through the information superhighway, narrowing the choice through the aid of synthetic intelligence, including the latest research available online to determine statistically which bracelet is the most compatible for his genetic profile.

The other man is enjoying the sunset and already wearing his new bracelet. He got it earlier that day while jogging through the town's craft fair. After trying a few on, he chose the one that felt right.

References

  • Ash, Robert and Peter Hewitt 1988 Science of the Gods, manuscript.
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  • Dollwet, H H A and J R J Sorenson 1985 Historic uses of copper compounds in medicine, Trace elements in medicine, Vol. 2, No. 2
  • Hangarter W, L?bke A 1952 ?ber die Behandlung rhematischer Erkrankungen mit einer Kupfer-Natrium-Salizylat-Komplexverbindung (Permalon). Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 77: 870
  • Heimlich J 1990 "What Your Doctor Won't Tell You" Harper Collins, NYC page 156
  • Hignett SL 1952 Some nutritional factors affecting herd fertility in cattle in Britain. IInd International Congress of Physiology and Pathology of Animal Reproduction. Copenhagen 2:75
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  • O'Leary Brian 1993, "Exploring Inner and Outer Space"
  • Rademacher JG 1848 Rechtfertigung der von den Gelehrten mifkannten, verstandesrechten Erfahrungsheillehre. Druck und Verlag von G. Reimer, Berlin, vol I und II
  • Schulz H 1907 Vorlesungen ?ber Wirkung und Anwendung der unorganischen Arzneistoffe f?r ?rzte und Studierende. Verlag von Georg Thieme, Liepzig
  • Sorenson JRJ 1976 Copper Chelates as possible active forms of the antiarthritic agents. J. Med. Chem. 19;135
  • Sorenson JRJ 1982 The anti-inflammatory activities of copper complexes. In: Siegel H (ed) Metal ions in biological Systems. Marcel Dekker. NYC, vol 14, p 77
  • Yogananda Paramahansa 1946 "Autobiography of a Yogi" Self-realization Fellowship Publishers, Los Angeles, CA

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